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Researchers demonstrate three-dimensional quantum Hall effect for the first time -- ScienceDaily

The quantum Hall effect QHE is the appearance of a voltage across opposite faces of a thin, 2D conducting sheet like graphene, which is a layer of carbon just one atom thick when a current is passed along the plane of the sheet and a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to it. The magnetic field forces conduction electrons in the sheet to drift in circular, quantized, orbits known as Landau levels. This movement normally depends on factors such as the density of electrons in the material and the thickness of the sheet.

All experiments to date appear to agree on a universal value for the quantum Hall resistance. Researchers would thus like to redefine the kilogram in a new way based on fundamental constants alone and one promising way to do this is in terms of the quantum Hall resistance. The explanation we put forward also closely matches the breakdown of superfluidity in liquid helium.

Helium gas is a very weakly interacting system, but it can be liquefied by applying a large pressure and transforms into a cloud of liquid helium droplets in the so-called Joule-Thomson transformation. This dispersion drastically reduces the excitation energy at finite wavelengths the Landau gap , which extends to around the same length as the inverse of the so-called inter-Landau Level LL wavefunction distance.

The Landau gap can then reach zero and even become negative.

This phenomenon is known as the critical Landau velocity and is responsible for the proliferation of collective electronic excitations dissipating the current. This is why it occurs so suddenly and looks like a bulk phase transition.

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Researchers demonstrate three-dimensional quantum Hall effect for the first time

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  4. Registration complete. Universal value for the quantum Hall resistance The quantum Hall effect QHE is the appearance of a voltage across opposite faces of a thin, 2D conducting sheet like graphene, which is a layer of carbon just one atom thick when a current is passed along the plane of the sheet and a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to it.

    Quantum Hall Effect and Topological Insulators

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