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The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs, or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.

The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. The experiment should be so conducted to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur, except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.

The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.

During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end, if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill, and careful judgment required of him, that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

Sources : Encyclopaedia Judaica. All Rights Reserved.

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Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library. The Nuremberg Code. Documents on Medical Experiments. Herta Oberheuser. Camp Specific. KZ Gusen. Nerve Regeneration. Bone Transplantation. Epidemic Jaundice. Incendiary Bombs. Lost Mustard Gas. Spotted Fever Fleckfieber. Himmler Memoranda. Applying the "classical" empirical tools to this unprecedented historical chapter, Kulka strives to incorporate it into the continuum of Jewish and universal history.

At the same time he endeavors to fathom the meaning of the ideologically motivated mass murder and incalculable suffering. The author presents a multifaceted, integrative history, encompassing the German society, its attitudes toward the Jews and toward the anti-Jewish policy of the Nazi regime; as well as the Jewish society, its self-perception and its leadership. His studies are indispensable for an understanding of the Holocaust in the context of German, Jewish and European history and doubtless rank among the most impressive research works in this field. The different sections are excellently thought-out, and the whole volume is brilliantly conceived and structured.

User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close Advanced Search Help. From , 4, Jews were sent from Amsterdam and Westerbork to Theresienstadt. Of the almost 5, Jews sent to Theresiendadt, 1, survived. In , 3, Jews were deported from Westerbork to Bergen Belsen. This transport had the highest rate of survival, with 2, Jews surviving. Of these ,, only 5, survived. Some were Native Dutch, and others were refugees who attempted to seek asylum in the Netherlands. One of these victims was Esther or Etty Hillesum. Hillesum began to keep a diary when she was 27 years old.

Her diary chronicles her dreams of becoming a writer, her spiritual and sexual growth, and her realization of the grim fate the Jews faced. Along with her diary, Etty also wrote letters from Westerbork camp. Partially published in Dutch resistance newspapers while she was alive, her letters were later published posthumously. These letters detail the conditions at Westerbork, and the transport of Jews to extermination camps. On July 10, , Hillesum wrote a letter from Westerbork that discussed what she recognised as her parents' inevitable transport to an eastern camp and their likely deaths.

She wrote:.

And I must learn to accept this as well. Hillesum died at Auschwitz on or around November 30, Also the exploits of Geertruida Wijsmuller-Meijer in saving especially children outside the Netherlands from the shoah, are noted. She organised the first train transport of Jewish children from Vienna in December , after direct negotiations with Adolf Eichmann in the city, and the ultimate children's transport Kindertransport , on 14 May , from the Netherlands with 74 children on board the last ship leaving the country. Per her role in the Kindertransporte is slowly gaining recognition in English-speaking countries.

The Jewish-Dutch population after the Second World War is marked by certain significant changes: emigration; a low birth rate; and a high intermarriage rate. Aliyah from the Netherlands initially surpassed that of any other Western nation. Israel is still home to some 6, Dutch Jews. Others emigrated to the United States.

There was a high assimilation and intermarriage rate among those who stayed. As a result, the Jewish birth rate and organized community membership dropped. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, relations with non-Jews were friendly. The Jewish community received reparations payments from the government. In , two years after the end of the Second World War in the Netherlands, the total number of Jews as counted in the population census was just 14, less than 10 percent of the count of , by the German occupation force in Later, this number was adjusted by Jewish organisations to some 24, Jews living in the Netherlands in This was a huge loss compared to the number of Jews counted in This latter number was disputed, as the German occupation force counted Jews on their classification of race.

Chicken Soup and Other Remedies: The Complicated History of Jews and Medicine

They included hundreds of Christians of Jewish heritage in the Nazi census. There were also some Catholic Jews living in the Netherlands [during the Nazi occupation] The dating sites Jingles [41] and Jentl en Jewell are for that purpose. There are proportionally more Jewish Dutch women in the labor force than non-Jewish Dutch women. Since the late 20th century, a number of mostly Israeli and Russian Jews have immigrated to the Netherlands, the latter after the Soviet Union eased emigration and after its dissolution.

Approximately one in three Dutch Jews was born elsewhere. The number of Israeli Jews living in the Netherlands concentrated in Amsterdam runs in the thousands estimates run from 5, to 7, Israeli expatriates in the Netherlands, although some claims go as high as 12, In the 21st century, some 10, Dutch Jews have emigrated to Israel. As of , approximately 41, to 45, people in the Netherlands either identify as Jewish, or are defined as Jewish by halakha Rabbinic law , by which persons with Jewish mothers are defined as Jewish.

Orthodox Jews do not accept them as Jews [44] [45] unless they undergo a religious conversion through an Orthodox Bet Din. An exception is the growing Orthodox Jewish population, especially in Amsterdam. There are some synagogues present in the Netherlands; 50 are still used for religious services. Various antisemitic incidents continue to occur,. In a monument was defaced that was dedicated to the Jews of Gorinchem , seventy of whom were murdered in World War II. Commentators associate such incidents with the ongoing tensions in the Middle East.

In June , De Telegraaf published results of a report on antisemitism among youths, conducted by the Verwey Jonker Institute. The survey revealed that antisemitism is more prevalent among Muslims: 12 percent of Muslim respondents expressed a "not positive" view of Dutch Jews, compared to two percent among Christian respondents. The ADL Anti-Defamation League published the "ADL Global " , [53] an international survey conducted in to measure antisemitic opinions in countries around the world.

The survey was composed of eleven phrases that represent antisemitic stereotypes. Smaller, independent synagogues exist as well. The NIK has approximately 5, members, spread over 36 congregations of whom 13 are in Amsterdam and surroundings in four jurisdictions Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam and the Interprovincial Rabbinate.

The NIK was founded in At its height in , it represented Jewish communities. By World War II, it had communities; it is made up of 36 congregations today. Besides governing some 36 congregations, the NIK has responsibility for the operation of more than Jewish cemeteries in the Netherlands the total is It is concentrated in Amsterdam.

It was founded in , although Sephardic Jews had long been in the city.

Archives, Libraries, and Museums

Throughout history, Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands, in contrast to their Ashkenazi co-religionists, have settled mostly in a few communities: Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, Naarden and Middelburg. Only the congregation in Amsterdam survived the Holocaust with enough members to maintain its activities. Cheider is affiliated with Haredi Orthodox Judaism.

The head shluchim in the Netherlands are rabbis I. Vorst and Binyomin Jacobs. The latter is chief rabbi of the Interprovinciaal Opperrabbinaat the Dutch Rabbinical Organisation [55] and vice-president of Cheider. Chabad serves approximately 2, Jews in the Holland region, and an unknown number in the rest of the Netherlands. Though the number of Dutch Jews is decreasing, [ citation needed ] the last decades have seen a growth of Liberal Jewish communities throughout the country.

Introduced by German-Jewish refugees in the early s, nowadays some 3, Jews in the Netherlands are linked to one of several Liberal Jewish synagogues throughout the country. Liberal synagogues are present in Amsterdam founded in ; families — some 1, members , Rotterdam , The Hague ; families , Tilburg , Utrecht , Arnhem ; 70 families , Haaksbergen , Almere , Heerenveen ; some 30 members and Zuid-Laren. A new Liberal synagogue has been built in Amsterdam, meters away from the current synagogue. This was needed since the former building became too small for the growing community.

The Liberal synagogue in Amsterdam receives approximately 30 calls a month by people who wish to convert to Judaism. The number of people who complete conversion is much lower. The number of converts to Liberal Judaism may be as high as to , in an existing community of approximately 3, Amsterdam is home to Beit Ha'Chidush , a progressive religious community that was founded in by Jews with secular as well as religious backgrounds. They wanted to create a more open, diverse, and renewed Judaism.

The community accepts members from all backgrounds, including homosexuals and half-Jews including Jews with a Jewish father, the first Jewish community in the Netherlands to do so. The rabbi for the community was German-born Elisa Klapheck , the first female rabbi of the Netherlands. It is now Clary Rooda. The first service was held on January 6, in the historic Koornmarkt synagogue of Delft.

Services have continued every two weeks, alternating on Friday evening or Saturday morning, next to holidays. Participation in the activities is open to anyone who feels Jewish, is Jewish, or wants to be Jewish. The siddurim — prayer books — contain Hebrew text as well as a phonetic transcription and a translation in Dutch. As of the beginning of the Jewish year October 2, , Hannah Nathans is rabbi of the kehilla congregation, Hebr. Conservative Judaism "Masorti" was introduced in the Netherlands in , with the founding of a community in the city of Almere.

In Masorti Nederland Masorti Netherlands had some 75 families, primarily based in the greater Amsterdam-Almere region. The congregation uses the 19th century synagogue in the city of Weesp. Its first rabbi is David Soetendorp There is also a second Dutch Masorti kehilla in the city of Deventer called Masorti Jewish Community nl:Beth Shoshanna that began in and holds services and other activities in the 19th century Great Synagogue of Deventer.

Rosj Pina is a school for Jewish children ages 4 through Education is mixed boys and girls together despite its affiliation to the Orthodox NIK. It is the largest Jewish school in the Netherlands. As of , it had pupils enrolled. It had some pupils enrolled in Although founded as a Jewish school and affiliated to the NIK, it has a secular curriculum. Of the three, it is the only school with a Haredi background. Girls and boys are educated in separate classes. The school has some pupils. Tzemach Hasadeh is a Jewish kindergarten in The Hague. It has been active since and has a Jewish, Dutch and Israeli education program.

There are two Jewish nursing homes in the Netherlands. There are some elderly Jews currently residing in Beth Shalom. Visserhuis , is located in The Hague. Both nursing homes are aligned to Orthodox Judaism ; kosher food is available. Both nursing homes have their own synagogue. There is a Jewish wing at the Amstelland Hospital in Amstelveen. It is unique in Western Europe in that Jewish patients are cared for according to Orthodox Jewish law; kosher food is the only type of food available at the hospital.


The Sinai Centrum Sinai Center is a Jewish psychiatric hospital located in Amsterdam, Amersfoort primary location and Amstelveen , which focuses on mental healthcare, as well as caring for and guiding persons who are mentally disabled. Originally focusing on the Jewish segment of the Dutch population, and especially on Holocaust survivors who were faced with mental problems after the Second World War, nowadays the Sinai Centrum also provides care for non-Jewish victims of war and genocide.

Part of NIKMedia is the Joodse Omroep, [73] which broadcasts documentaries, stories and interviews on a variety of Jewish topics every Sunday and Monday on the Nederland 2 television channel except from the end of May until the beginning of September. NIKMedia is also responsible for broadcasting music and interviews on Radio 5.

It is an important news source for many Dutch Jews, focusing on Jewish topics on a national as well as on an international level. It gives a lot of attention to the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. There are a couple of Jewish websites focusing on bringing Jewish news to the Dutch Jewish community. By far the most prominent is Joods. Amsterdam's Jewish community today numbers about 15, people. Buitenveldert is considered a popular neighbourhood to live in; this is due to its low crime-rate and because it is considered to be a quiet neighbourhood.

Especially in the neighbourhood of Buitenveldert there's a sizeable Jewish community. In this area, Kosher food is widely available. There are several Kosher restaurants, two bakeries, Jewish-Israeli shops, a pizzeria and some supermarkets host a Kosher department.

Anti-Jewish Legislation in Prewar Germany

This neighourbood also has a Jewish elderly home, an Orthodox synagogue and three Jewish schools. Uniquely in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities coexisted in close proximity. Having different cultural traditions, the communities remained generally separate, but their geographical closeness resulted in cross-cultural influences not found elsewhere. Notably, in the early days when small groups of Jews were attempting to establish communities, they used the services of rabbis and other officials from either culture, depending on who was available.

The close proximity of the two cultures also led to intermarriage at a higher rate than was known elsewhere, and in consequence many Jews of Dutch descent have family names that seem to belie their religious affiliation. Ashkenazim elsewhere traditionally avoid naming a child after a living relative.

In , while the Netherlands was under Napoleonic rule, all Dutch residents including Jews were obliged to register surnames with the civic authorities; previously only Sephardim had complied with this. Although the Ashkenazim had avoided civic registration, many had been using an unofficial system of surnames for hundreds of years.

Also under Napoleonic rule, an law required Dutch Jewish schools to teach in Dutch as well as Hebrew. This excluded other languages. Yiddish , the lingua franca of Ashkenazim, and Judaeo-Portuguese , the previous language of the Portuguese Sephardim, practically ceased to be spoken among Dutch Jews. Certain Yiddish words have been adopted into the Dutch language, especially in Amsterdam, where there was a large Jewish population.

The city is also called Mokum , from the Hebrew word for town or place, makom. Jews played a major role in the development of Dutch colonial territories and international trade, and many Jews in former colonies have Dutch ancestry. However, all the major colonial powers were competing fiercely for control of trade routes; the Dutch were relatively unsuccessful and during the 18th century, their economy went into decline.

Many of the Ashkenazim in the rural areas were no longer able to subsist and they migrated to the cities in search of work. This caused a large number of small Jewish communities to collapse completely ten adult males were required in order to conduct major religious ceremonies. Entire communities migrated to the cities, where Jewish populations swelled dramatically. In , the Jewish population of Amsterdam was 6,, with Ashkenazim and Sephardim in almost equal numbers. By the figure was 20,, the vast majority being poor Ashkenazim from rural areas.

Anti-Jewish Legislation in Prewar Germany | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

Because Jews were obliged to live in specified Jewish quarters, there was severe overcrowding. By the mid-nineteenth century, many were emigrating to other countries where the advancement of emancipation offered better opportunities see Chuts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Auschwitz Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945) (UNESCO/NHK)