Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens is an essential reference and teaching tool for researchers in developed and developing countries working to produce "natural enemies" in biological control and integrated pest management programs.
As we become aware of the negative impact of pesticides in human health and on the environment, interest is rapidly increasing in developing biological pest control alternatives.
Tremendous advances have been made in beneficial organism technology, such as insect predators and parasitoids, mite predators, entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. However, developing techniques to mass produce these biological control agents is not enough if the cost of commercialization is prohibitive.
Advancing mass production to the level of economic feasibility is critical, so these new technologies can compete in the open market. This book educates academic and industry researchers, and enables further development of mass production so new technologies can compete in the open market. It is also an excellent resource for those researching beneficial arthropod mass production and technologies for other uses, including for study and application in biotechnology and biomedical research.
Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Shockley, M. In: Morales-Ramos, J. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects on body composition, protein quality, apparent precaecal digestibility apcD and parameters of intestinal microbiota. In total, one-day-old male growing chickens Ross from a commercial hatchery were randomly allotted to 48 pens 6 birds per pen across five diets, which were fed at a free choice level. After finishing the growth study, 4 individual birds per diet were slaughtered for whole body analyses to derive nutrient utilization and dietary protein quality parameters.
An additional large cost component for conventionally grown P.
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Thus, it is not possible to store mites ready for shipping for extended periods. The result of this is that it is standard practice to overproduce P. The nutritional requirements of mites have been studied. See, for example, J.
McMurtry and J. Rodriguez and L. Also, various attempts have been made to develop artificial diets for mites and other organisms. There has been no report of a low cost diet for effectively raising Phytoseiid mites. An artificial diet with associated low cost mass production technology and equipment for P. Cost-effective release of inundative amounts of phytoseiids has the potential for dramatically reducing use of conventional insecticides without increased crop loss. Lower costs for phytoseiids also should increase the range of crops on which these predators could be components of IPM programs.
S Brief Summary of the Invention The subject invention concerns materials and methods useful for rearing insects, mites, and other beneficial organisms. In a preferred embodiment,. In a specific I O embodiment, the subject invention provides a unique and advantageous artificial diet for growing phytoseiid mites.
Bestselling in Biological Pest Control
This diet is a low cost. Also, the subj ect invention eliminates or reduces the need to include prey or host material in the diet of beneficial organisms. Thus, this invention overcomes some of the key economic obstacles in the use of phytoseiid mites in a pest control program. In a preferred embodiment, the novel diet of the subject invention comprises a source of fat, a source of amino acids, at least one intact protein, and a carbohydrate source all in an aqueous solution.
In a preferred embodiment of the subject invention, dried egg yolk provides the fat, a meat-based hydrolysate provides amino acids, the intact protein is a plant protein, and the carbohydrate is maltose. In a specific embodiment the meat-based hydrolysate is Primatone and the plant protein is soy flour. Detailed Disclosure of the Invention The subj ect invention provides a growth medium which can be used to grow commercial quantities of mites or insects at a low cost.
In a specific embodiment, the diet can be used to grow phytoseiid mites.
Insects as food for insectivores
Thus, for the first time, phytoseiid mites can be made available for pest management at an economically feasible low cost. The artificial diet of the subject invention comprises a source of fat, a source of amino acids, at least one intact protein, and a carbohydrate source all in an aqueous solution. Sources of fat which can be used according to the subject invention include egg yolk and other compositions having an emulsified fat component.
In a preferred S embodiment, dried egg yolk serves as the source of the fat. Egg yolk is particularly preferred because it serves as an additional source of protein and other nutrients in addition to providing emulsified fat. As used herein, reference to a source of amino acids refers to amino acids which are not in the form of an intact protein. Thus, the source of amino acids can be, for example, a protein hydrolysate. Examples of suitable hydrolysates include casein enzymatic hydrolysate, yeast extract, and lactalbumin enzymatic hydrolysate.
Preferably, the source of amino acids is a meat-based hydrolysate. The intact protein used according to the subject invention can be a plant or animal protein. In a preferred embodiment the intact protein is a plant protein. Proteins which can be used according to the subject invention include but are not limited to soy flour, wheat germ, and corn meal.
In a specific embodiment the plant protein is soy flour. The carbohydrate source used in the artificial diet of the subject invention may be a composition such as honey which contains a mixture of carbohydrates or it may be a single carbohydrate. Preferred carbohydrates are maltose, cornstarch, and glycogen. In a preferred embodiment of the subject invention the osmotic pressure of the composition is kept above about mOsm. Preferably the osmotic pressure is between about mOsm and about mOsm. Most preferably the osmotic pressure is between about mOsm and about mOsm.
In formulating the artificial diet of the subject invention it is preferable for the dried egg yolk and the intact protein to be present in relatively large amounts and to be present in roughly equal amounts. The source of amino acids should be present in much lower amounts and can be, for example, present at about 0. More preferably the amino acid should be present at about 0.
Thus, the ratio of intact protein to free amino acids is, by weight, between about and about More preferably this ratio is between about and about The concentration of the ingredients can be manipulated to achieve a desired osmotic strength. In one embodiment of the invention, the diet can be supplemented with one or more vitamins.
The vitamins used may be, for example, vitamin E, vitamin C, choline, folic acid, pantothenic, acid and vitamin B In a further embodiment of the subject invention the diet contains salts such as Wesson's salts Wesson, L.
Production of heteropteran predators
These salts may, advantageously, include phosphate salts. In addition to use in rearing mites, the diet of the subject invention can be used for rearing beneficial insects such as predaceous and parasitic insects. Such insects include, but are not limited to, insects from the orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Heteroptera and Neuroptera.
Examples of specific insects are Geocoris punctipes, Podisus maculiventris, Orius spp. Perillus bioculatus, Lyctocoris campestris and Xylocoris flavipes, all hemipterans; Calosoma sycophanta, Hippodamia convergens, and Colemegilla maculata; coleopterans; and Diapetimorpha introita, Catolccus grandis and Cryptus albitarsus; hymenopterans. The diet of the subject invention can be administered to the mites or insects through a variety of techniques known to those skilled in the art.
In one embodiment arenas can be constructed from tightly sealed, vented Falcon number 50 mm Petri dishes. A vent is constructed by drilling a large hole in the lid of the dish and covering the hole with fine nylon mesh welded onto the outer surface of the lid. These arenas are held in a plastic box humidified with beakers of water or saturated salt solution and placed into the incubator in a sealed plastic bag to ensure equilibration of the air in the arenas with the humidity control solution.
Mite harborage and oviposition sites can be provided within the arena by supplying open cell foam material with openings of approximately to microns. For procedures where the number of mites and eggs is to be quantified, this foam material can be sliced into very thin sections of one layer of foam "cells" on a microtome so that all surfaces of the material can be examined thoroughly through the dissecting microscope.
This foam can be anchored to the arena floor with a small piece of "Tac n Stik" adhesive. The diet can be enclosed within a film dome. These membranes are extremely thin about microns.