May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. Seller Inventory X More information about this seller Contact this seller Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library. Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory X. Seller Inventory Xn. Language: English. Brand new Book. Reflective practice is at the heart of effective teaching, and this book will help you develop into a reflective teacher of history.
The book shows you how to plan lessons, how to make the best use of resources and how to assess pupils' progress effectively. Each chapter contains points for reflection, which encourage you to break off from your reading and think about the challenging questions that you face as a history teacher. The book comes with access to a companion website, where you will find: - Videos of real lessons so you can see the skills discussed in the text in action- Transcripts from teachers and students that you can use as tools for reflection- Links to a range of sites that provide useful additional support- Extra planning and resource materials.
If you are training to teach history, citizenship or social sciences this book will help you to improve your classroom performance by providing you with practical advice, and also by helping you to think in depth about the key issues. It provides examples of the research evidence that is needed in academic work at Masters level, essential for anyone undertaking an M-level PGCE. Seller Inventory AAZ Seller Inventory AAX Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket.
Reflective teaching: Exploring our own classroom practice
Continue shopping. Title: teaching history developing reflective. Results 1 - 18 of But since you have developed the frame such as the job title, requirements, skills etc. I just had to follow this pattern and look for relevant information. The teachers were able to make adaptations in response to different constraints and contexts. Miss Joey therefore adopted a more teacher-centered approach in her teaching and kept encouraging her students not to give up. The findings indicated above contrast sharply with the previous case study conducted in early years about the SBCD programs initiated by the Hong Kong government e.
Although the government-led SBCD programs were finally implemented at the classroom level, the teachers merely put it up as a one-off initiative in order to secure the funding. Lo , p. In reality, the scheme was highly centralized and resulted in the Education Department maintaining control of the process and products of the scheme.
It is therefore, a bureaucratic version of SBCD which stressed the one-off production of classroom materials. Other research Law into the same government-initiated scheme in a different setting also showcased scenarios of such highly centralized decentralization practice. One teacher found it incompatible with his own teaching philosophy and opted to withdraw from the program. Teaching should be treated as an artful practice rather than a technical procedure. Teachers should be given autonomy to tailor the materials for the needs of their students.
Education should not be a bureaucratic practice, described by Weber , p.
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In the latter, you need to ensure precision, stability, and reliability by strictly following all the steps in order to generate the same experiment results. The implementation of a curriculum written according to the reflective approach is a different narrative, as Eisner , p. Those interested in curriculum matters and working with teachers began to recognize that the conditions teachers addressed were each distinctive. As a result, abstract theory would be of limited value.
Each child needed to be known individually … each situation … was unique. It was a grasp of these distinctive features that the teachers needed to make good decisions in the classroom. Following the above studies related to government-initiated programs, there have been sporadic case studies over the past decade about medium- to large-scale SBCD projects initiated by local universities, bureaucrats, and joint schools Lam and Yeung , as well as research relating to SBCD leadership Lo In developing a school-based curriculum, the process and the result are equally important.
In other words, the aim is to promote professional growth in teachers and development of school, so that students can learn more effectively. With school as the base of education reforms, teachers and the principal make decisions regarding the curriculum development through careful thought, including curriculum objectives, curriculum content, design of teaching and learning activities and teaching and learning materials, and curriculum evaluation.
Education Bureau , n. Thus, the Education Bureau in attempting to promote professional growth in teachers and development of a school via the SBCD initiative. While further research is needed for the effectiveness of this type of reform-steering SBCD practice on students and teachers, the Education Bureau should consider advocating a more reflective approach to SBCD planning. The difference between the two is that the former is initiated by external force, whereas the latter is based on internal needs. During the early years of curriculum reforms, the four major initiatives were identified as project-based learning, promotion of reading, moral and civic education and information technology.
Such [externally driven] initiatives can hardly be internalised or implemented sustainably by the teaching team. The SBCD project investigated in this case study is now in its fourth year of implementation.
The Reflective Secondary Teacher (EDUC) / Course / The University of Newcastle, Australia
The content has been reviewed and evaluated with only minor change, thus reflecting the sustainability of bottom-up curriculum change based on internal needs. The answer may lie in many factors, e. The contrast between this case study and the government-initiated SBCD schemes indicates that implementation which aims to satisfy complex bureaucratic requirements can never lead to the authentic purpose of school-based curriculum Wong As predicted by Weber , p.
The dominant norms are concepts of straightforward duty without regard to personal considerations. Everyone is subject to formal equality of treatment; that is, everyone in the same empirical situation. This is the spirit in which the ideal official conducts his office. CDC We do not argue whether these models and concepts are appropriate or not. Passion, as described concretely by Day , p. These qualities are evidently vested in the participants.
Without passion, Miss Joey would not have prepared additional materials for her students in every learning task she delivered. Without passion, Miss Mitchell would not have designed another project for her students. Nor should it be reduced to a vehicle of reforms. However, before a fully reflective approach is achieved in SBCD, curriculum developers globally may continue to face different limitations such as the backwash of the public examinations, the accountability measures taken to supervise the DSS schools, and the prerequisites-vested definition of SBCD in the official curriculum documents.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. School-based curriculum development as reflective practice: a case study in Hong Kong. Authors Authors and affiliations S. Yuen H. Boulton T. Open Access. First Online: 19 February Introduction Knowles , p. In its latest Basic Education Curriculum Guide Primary 1—6 CDC , the CDC continued to encourage schools to plan their own curriculum by: providing appropriate curriculum content and adopting suitable learning, teaching and assessment strategies to cater for students with different backgrounds, abilities and needs in the face of new learning needs brought about by the changes in society.
However, the accountability mechanism taken by the government, which is described by Fok et al.
Although the document may have encouraged reflective practice among teachers, such practice is not without agendas as eight guiding principles for SBCD are explicitly outlined in the document, in particular: 3. Thus, SBCD can result in becoming a vehicle of reforms rather than a reflective practice. However, it is acknowledged that the two may not be mutually exclusive as the curriculum documents do encourage teachers to be reflective practitioners.
It should be noted that the way that the central curriculum is written in Hong Kong is different from the German Didaktik tradition, which is centred on the forms of reasoning about teaching appropriate for an autonomous professional teacher who has complete freedom within the framework of the Lehrplan [or curriculum in English] to develop his or her own approaches to teaching.
A brief profile of the four participants, using pseudonyms, is as follows: Ms Sussie is a local teacher who was raised and educated in Hong Kong in her early years. In this case study, semi-structured interviews, with a prepared interview guide that included a number of questions Roulston , were used.
The questions directed to the teachers were reflective in nature, and the topics were based on, but not limited to, the following themes: a. Teaching strategies they usually use to teach English. Thematic analysis allows researchers to identify, analyze, and report patterns according to the importance of the data presented by the participants Braun and Clarke Thus, instead of setting pre-determined and assumptive themes for discussion, this research facilitated the emergence of socially constructed themes, using thematic analysis.
The analysis of the interview data in this study followed the steps of thematic analysis outlined in Braun and Clarke : 1.
Teachers show positive attitudes towards SBCD Teachers in this study generally had positive attitudes and views of the school-based curriculum SBC designed for the English elective Workplace Communication and felt empowered to give constructive comments on how to improve the SBMs during the interviews. All of them mentioned explicitly during the interviews that the curriculum developed by the school was able to cater for learner diversity: Miss Mitchell: In our SBC, we gave them a passage that is similar to what they are going to write, so they are exposed to it.
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Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. New York: Pearson Education Limited. Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol, 3 2 , 77— CrossRef Google Scholar. Bryman, A. Social research methods 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Chan, J. Educ Res Policy Prac, 9 2 , 93— Chiu, C. Chiu Chi-Shing talks about education and other issues.
Curriculum Development Council. Learning to learn: lifelong learning and whole-person development. Hong Kong: The Printing Department. English language curriculum and assessment guide secondary 4—6. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government. Basic education curriculum guide—to sustain, deepen and focus on learning to learn primary 1—6.
English language education key learning area curriculum guide Primary 1—Secondary 6 Draft May Day, C. A passion for teaching. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Dickson, P. Profiles of language education in 25 countries. Slough: NFER. Education Bureau. Definition of school-based curriculum development [online]. Assessed 20 May Eisner, E. From episteme to phronesis to artistry in the study and improvement of teaching.
Teach Teach Educ, 18 4 , — Skip to content. Reflective teaching means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it, and thinking about if it works - a process of self-observation and self-evaluation. By collecting information about what goes on in our classroom, and by analysing and evaluating this information, we identify and explore our own practices and underlying beliefs. This may then lead to changes and improvements in our teaching. Reflective teaching is therefore a means of professional development which begins in our classroom. Why it is important Many teachers already think about their teaching and talk to colleagues about it too.
You might think or tell someone that "My lesson went well" or "My students didn't seem to understand" or "My students were so badly behaved today. However, without more time spent focussing on or discussing what has happened, we may tend to jump to conclusions about why things are happening. We may only notice reactions of the louder students. Reflective teaching therefore implies a more systematic process of collecting, recording and analysing our thoughts and observations, as well as those of our students, and then going on to making changes.
Beginning the process of reflection You may begin a process of reflection in response to a particular problem that has arisen with one or your classes, or simply as a way of finding out more about your teaching. You may decide to focus on a particular class of students, or to look at a feature of your teaching - for example how you deal with incidents of misbehaviour or how you can encourage your students to speak more English in class.
The first step is to gather information about what happens in the class. Here are some different ways of doing this.
Teaching History: Developing as a Reflective Secondary Teacher / Edition 1
After each lesson you write in a notebook about what happened. You may also describe your own reactions and feelings and those you observed on the part of the students. You are likely to begin to pose questions about what you have observed. Diary writing does require a certain discipline in taking the time to do it on a regular basis. Download diary suggestions 51k. Peer observation Invite a colleague to come into your class to collect information about your lesson.
This may be with a simple observation task or through note taking. This will relate back to the area you have identified to reflect upon. For example, you might ask your colleague to focus on which students contribute most in the lesson, what different patterns of interaction occur or how you deal with errors. Recording lessons Video or audio recordings of lessons can provide very useful information for reflection.