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Do the clouds in the sky mean it will snow or that a thunderstorm is coming? Find out how precipitation works, and you will know! Why is wind so powerful if you can't even see it? Everything from a breeze to a hurricane is caused by air pressure. Did you know there are tools you can use to predict the weather? Meteorologists use them every day to help you decide whether to wear a jacket or your raincoat. What has a constant temperature and humidity and is made of air? You guessed it! It is an air mass, and it has a big influence on weather. Severe storms are more than just rain, thunder, and lightning.

Mountain Weather and Climate: A General Overview and a Focus on Climatic Change in the Alps

There are a lot of ways the weather can get dangerous. You probably see rain or snow all the time, but do you know how water gets back up into the sky? The water cycle makes sure water gets where it needs to go. Ever wonder why ocean water is salty? Believe it not, most of that salt comes from rocks!

Volcanic gases also add to the ocean's saltiness. Waves and currents are different, but they work together. They give the ocean a lot of its motion. The ocean does not always stay the same depth. I just don't know. I don't know how we'd be able to sell the house. Honestly, I really don't. It's happening as we stand here. So, anyone who doubts it, we invite them to buy all of this property here and to come live and see for themselves. I need to be able to get to work. I bought a truck that has a snorkel. We have no time to waste, the situation is urgent.

And across all of America, the costs are mounting. On a single day in , a satellite recorded three megastorms bearing down on the Americas. Meteorologist Paul Douglas' weather team has never seen anything like it. Harvey alone caused catastrophic flooding in southeastern Texas, with financial damages that rival Katrina, and Puerto Rico was devastated by Hurricane Maria.

In a warmer climate, system hurricanes will have more octane gasoline to draw from in the ocean, and that drives these large powerful storms. NARRATOR: When trees that have been helping by pulling carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere burn down, much of that carbon is pumped back into the air. The loss of ice means more warming.

As temperatures warm and ice starts to melt, the ice and the ocean system absorb more energy, which causes the temperatures to warm more, which causes more ice to melt and so on. Once it begins, it wants to run away in big ways that will further accelerate climate change. We're just incredibly vulnerable to changes in our climate, especially rapid changes. It keeps me awake at night sometimes, thinking about my children or what will become of my state or my country, or my relatives, in the future.

It is a scary thought. But what gives me hope is that we understand this, and we have an incredibly good idea of what is about to happen, so, we actually can do something about it. You can be driving down the road, even staying in your own lane, if you are driving along looking in the rearview mirror, because the road is completely straight, so where you were in the past is a perfect prediction of where you are going to be in the future.

But what if you are driving down this road, looking in your rearview mirror and a giant curve comes up? You're going to run off the road, because the past is not a perfect predictor of the future if the road is changing. We represent the ocean, we represent the land, the sea ice and the atmosphere all around the earth.

Weather and Climate For Kids - Periwinkle

Within those four components, we also then break up the earth into little grid boxes. And then we can slice up the atmosphere into thin layers and slice down into the ocean and down into the soil. NARRATOR: Once they have divided the system into manageable parts, they use well-established mathematical equations, grid box by grid box, to run the model forward in time.

They can produce weather systems, even hurricanes; they can produce droughts and floods. They predict how each part of the climate machine will change, like sea surface temperature, storm intensity or the extent of the ice caps. Every detail is included. But the path to perfect models is still a work in progress, because Earth's climate machine is such a complicated one.

The role that clouds play, for instance, is important, but poorly understood. And the speed at which ice sheets will break apart is another big unknown. The models can be started in the past and run forward. The blue line shows the average of those predictions.

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We calibrate them against what we've observed. We test them against the history of climate change. And we now know they're pretty good. NARRATOR: The models can be used to run a virtual experiment: if we continue emitting carbon dioxide on the path we are on, what do they say our world will look like in ?

This map shows how temperatures could change. The models predict the average temperature could be 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter. That means in New York City, days with temperatures over 90 degrees would more than triple. And in the Arctic, which will heat up even faster, it could rise, on average, more than 15 degrees. Without major changes, this would put parts of cities like Miami under water. And new insights are coming in all the time. The work of David Holland and other scientists suggests that if large parts of western Antarctica break off, eight feet or more of sea level rise by is not out of the question.

That is a place where very large sea level rise, on the scale of years, is quite possible. That doesn't mean it will happen; but it actually could physically happen. The question now is what can we do about it to reduce the possible damage? We can do nothing and suffer the consequences;…. The options are connected. The more we mitigate, the less we would need to adapt. The more we adapt and mitigate, the less we would suffer. Billions of people depend on the sea for food or their livelihood. As temperatures rise, many species of marine life are moving to cooler waters, threatening local fisheries.

And warmer water is killing off coral reefs, which support about 25 percent of all life in the sea. That's…I mean, even when I say it, I have to be honest, I still find it shocking, and I want to find a reason for that figure to be wrong. But it is not wrong. The majority of the world's reefs will be dead by Coral reefs may be a case study in the devastating effects of climate change, but they also offer a lesson in survival.

Our question is why? NARRATOR: To help answer that question, the team prepares a sample of coral, puts it in water and places it in a cutting-edge microscope that can view living coral in real time. Under ultraviolet light, we can see the coral filled with algae, or tiny plant cells, that give it a red color. They are essential for the coral's survival, because they provide nutrients the coral needs. They power the system. The coral belches out the plant cells in tissue that looks like a black cloud.

Turning the living coral from a vibrant red to a lifeless, empty black. But not every coral reacts to heat in the same way. Essentially, it kills off the ones that can't survive the new conditions and then it selects for the best of the best. And ultimately, so must we. Adapting to our changed climate is already in the works in places like Norfolk, Virginia, where streets are regularly flooding. What are we going to do to bounce back and evolve?

What actually changes from what we see now? Army Corps of Engineers, is overseeing a plan to cope with the rising water. Norfolk is reimagining itself in a way that will permit resilience. The plan includes a five-mile floodwall, water-retaining parks and surge barriers. But adaptation can only go so far. Houses are still at risk, and managing a few feet of sea level rise is a lot different than the worst case scenario of eight feet by It can be done, but it's going to be a very different city if it's eight feet.

NARRATOR: Across America, cities are drawing up plans to adapt to the impacts of climate change, whether that's too much water from rising sea levels and stronger storms, or too little water from harsher, longer droughts. The more we mitigate, or limit, how much our climate changes, the less we will have to adapt. That will require shifting our economies away from burning fossil fuels. The good news is technology is moving so fast, there are many alternatives. Wind and solar are much further ahead than anybody ever thought they would be 10 years ago.

They're growing impossibly rapidly. We have roughly 2, employees that work here, and we make over 15, dishwashers a day. We look at our energy cost rising. The question was can we reduce the cost of the energy that we consume? The question is how much of it can you capture? We take utility-scale wind turbines, and we install them for the biggest power users around. Wind is such good business for Whirlpool, they ordered seven more turbines, for other plants in Ohio. It happens to be good for the environment, it happens to be great for the environment. But that's secondary to the fact that it has to have a real business need, if you want to run a business around it.

You're telling me I get to go out and play with cranes that weigh a million pounds and build a foot-tall structure? Okay, where do I sign up? Each can produce enough electricity to power up to homes or make a lot of dishwashers. Instead of having one plant that makes 1, megawatts, let's have plants and make 10 megawatts, or 1, plants that make one megawatt. Think of it as an invention factory for carbon-free, renewable energy. Jet fuel made from plants; taller, more powerful wind turbines; better batteries; and the next generation solar cell.

And this is going to change the way we generate electricity. It's really exciting. And if you look at how large that resource is in comparison to what we use, it dwarfs it. That's where Joseph and the other scientists at N. They think they've found a gamechanger in a class of materials called perovskites.

This is the coolest solar material, I'm going to say ever, but certainly the coolest solar material in the past 20 years. We can make it so easily, we could make an awful lot of it. We can make it really cheap, and we can make it really fast. Similar to the silicon that is currently used in most solar cells, they take energy from the sun and turn it into electricity. But while silicon requires exacting production techniques, perovskites are easy to work with and can even come in a bottle. The nice thing about working with liquid things is that you have a wide variety of ways you can apply it.

We can even put it on with a paintbrush. Imagine being able to integrate it into, essentially, every road surface, into fabrics. We're really talking about a future that…where solar is integrated into everything, that will…everything, full stop: your house, your car, your jacket, the whole shebang. NARRATOR: While perovskites are still several years from hitting the marketplace, already it is cheaper to create energy from solar or wind than building new power plants that use coal or nuclear.

But the wind doesn't always blow, the sun doesn't always shine, and changing our entire existing energy system is not going to happen overnight. Fossil fuels still account for 80 percent of the world's total power, and many people rely on them for their jobs and livelihoods. What if we could still burn fossil fuels, but without emitting carbon dioxide?

That's an idea they're developing at SaskPower, in Canada. One of the four coal-fired units here has been modified. Instead of releasing its carbon dioxide into the air, it is captured and pumped more than two miles underground, where it is effectively stored. There aren't more of these right now, because there is no commercial reason to do them. There's no economic incentive. So, is there a way to make it pay? But carbon is everywhere. We're made of carbon; we're carbon-based life forms.

Carbon's in our food, our yogurt, our ice cream, our, you know, cheese sandwiches. LISA DYSON: So, we have carbon dioxide bubbling into these bioreactors, and we have single-celled organisms, these super-charged carbon recyclers that are making complex molecules, like proteins. NARRATOR: Lisa envisions a day that our choices for solving the climate crisis are not just suffer, adapt or mitigate, but also prosper, by learning to recycle carbon dioxide into useful everyday products. If carbon capture and renewable technologies become more widespread, carbon dioxide levels will stop increasing.

But even reaching that goal may not be enough, because we still would have record high levels, continuing to warm up our planet. We may need to find a way to pull more carbon dioxide out of the air than we emit into it, to go into what's called "negative emissions. We've got to suck stuff out.

Plants do it every day for free. It wasn't what my gardener wife wanted.

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  • Plants pull carbon in from the air and turn it into sugars. They pump some of those sugars down into their roots to feed microorganisms, which use the carbon to build healthy soil. And when the plants decay, more carbon is added to the soil. But modern gardening and agriculture can disrupt this process and send the carbon back into the atmosphere. When Dave and Anne moved into their new house, the carbon content of the soil was less than two percent and looked like this.

    About a decade later, it's much richer and packed with carbon, almost 10 percent. That's tons of carbon sequestered as a consequence of gardening.

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    And I watched my soil washing downhill and leaving my farm, and I thought, "This is not good. But in the process, much of the carbon gets dug up and released back to the atmosphere. Dave decided to go another route called "no-till" farming. So, here we have residue left from last year's corn crop. Corn stalks, leaves, an occasional corncob. Not tilling helped the soil become healthier.

    No-till, combined with other agricultural techniques could capture more carbon dioxide than is emitted by all of the cars in the U.

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    And if we're able to do that, then agriculture could be a major contributor to very positive changes related to global climate. The right agricultural practices could absorb even more, as would planting more trees. There are even high tech artificial trees in development that could absorb up to 1, times the carbon. There are many strategies to address the climate crisis. It's likely we'll need all of them. JOHN HOLDREN: We need more renewables; we need to surmount the challenges that face expansion of nuclear energy; we need to do better at energy efficiency; we need to learn how to remove carbon dioxide from the combustion gases from fossil fuels.

    We've got a lot of work to do. They have proven beyond reasonable doubt that climate change is happening and that burning fossil fuels is the primary cause. Features include:. Important: To use the test banks below, you must download the TestGen software from the TestGen website. If you need help getting started, read the tutorials on the TestGen site. Pearson offers special pricing when you package your text with other student resources.

    If you're interested in creating a cost-saving package for your students, contact your Pearson rep. Ed Aguado. He received his Ph. His research interests are in the precipitation and hydrology of western U. He regularly teaches introductory and advanced meteorology, climatology, and physical geography, and often serves as a.

    His research interests are in physical geography, climatology, quantitative methods, and geovisualization. He regularly teaches advanced geography and atmospheric science courses. We're sorry! We don't recognize your username or password. Please try again. The work is protected by local and international copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. You have successfully signed out and will be required to sign back in should you need to download more resources.

    Understanding Weather and Climate, 7th Edition. Burt, University of Wisconsin - Madison. Availability Available. If You're a Student Buy this product Additional order info. Integrated Mobile-Ready Videos: Students use their mobile devices to scan Quick Response QR codes in the book to view videos, for just-in-time visualization of key meteorological concepts and applications. Emphasis on Oceans and Climate and on Climate Change: New and unique coverage on Oceans and their role in regulating weather and climate has been added in chapters 8, 15, and Series This product is part of the following series.

    MasteringMeteorology Series. GeoTutor Activities coach students through the most challenging meteorology concepts with highly visual, data-rich, kinesthetic tasks. Animations and corresponding assessment questions with wrong-answer feedback may be assigned. Visit www. With Learning Catalytics you can: Assess students in real time, using open-ended tasks to probe student understanding. Understand immediately where students are and adjust your lecture accordingly.

    Access rich analytics to understand student performance. Add your own questions to make Learning Catalytics fit your course exactly. Manage student interactions with intelligent grouping and timing. Focus on the Environment and Societal Impacts feature covers weather hazards on people and society, not just looking at the physical principles, but also at the broader human issues, and mitigation policies and strategies.