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An ethical analysis can play an important part in identifying human and nonhuman interests and the value of the ecosystem as a whole. It also asks how these values and interests may be threatened or undermined and how they may be furthered or protected. Ecosystem well-being is of crucial importance both in itself and for basic human interests and long-term social benefits. In this document, the main focus is on the way in which fishing policies and practices affect the living conditions, interests and well-being of fishers and fishing communities, as well as the well-being of the ecosystem.

This is in keeping with sustainable development, the dominant concept of environmental ethics, enshrined in the FAO concept of responsible fisheries. A major aspect of an ethical analysis of fisheries must be to clarify the human interests and social benefits that can be considered necessary conditions for leading a decent human life. Basic human interests are related to the main tasks that humans need to undertake in life in order to satisfy their needs and lead their lives in coexistence with others.

Bioethics in Context - Broadview Press

In line with classical ethical thought, these interests can be divided into three main categories: i Welfare : People need basic goods to survive and care for their offspring; ii Freedom : People seek to regulate their own affairs and realize their life plans in accordance with their own or culturally defined values; iii Justice : People need to find ways to share social benefits and burdens and facilitate peaceful coexistence. In this context, moral analysis aims to show, for example, how the human interests in welfare, freedom and justice are relevant and how they relate to social benefits in the management of fisheries.

These basic interests are intricately connected to the capabilities necessary for leading a decent human life and, thus, to the vulnerabilities against which people must be protected. They constitute the moral values that moral reasoning aims to defend, e.

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At the most general level, the related vulnerabilities against which people must be protected are: poverty, domination and injustice. Although different ethical theories may have different priority principles and reasoning behind them, a consensus has been forming about the main principles of bioethics: [1]. Human dignity, human rights and justice , which refers to the duty to promote universal respect for the human person.

In the context of fisheries, this principle relates, for example, to fishers' self-determination, access to fishing resources and the right to food. It is best represented by a rights-based approach in ethics that emphasizes the protection of the personal domain of each individual.

SPT v6n3 - The Descriptive and the Normative in Bioethics

It may require, however, the establishment of individual or community rights, the exact nature of which will depend on local conditions. Beneficence , which concerns human welfare, reducing the harms and optimizing the benefits of social practices. In the context of fisheries, this principle needs to be observed when the effects of policies and practices upon the livelihoods of fishing communities are evaluated.

The principle relates to working conditions safety on board , as well as food quality and safety. The issue of genetically modified organisms should also be addressed in this context FAO, b. This principle invites an ethical approach to fisheries that puts consequences to general welfare in focus. Cultural diversity, pluralism and tolerance , which relates to the need to take different value systems into account within the limits of other moral principles.

While social science of bioethics and social science in bioethics have historically existed in tension, it is important that they remain distinct areas of inquiry while moving towards constructive conversations. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Since the inception of professional American bioethics, social scientists have been invested in participating in the debates surrounding the definitions and solutions to bioethical problems. Key Concepts In American bioethics, there are four jurisdictions that a variety of professionals engage in: cultural bioethics, research bioethics, health care ethics consultation and public policy bioethics. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.

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