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A limited grasp of higher math can impact your studies. Alan Campbell: I disagree. THe lower level jobs tend to attract the geeks that want to learn low level anyway. If you want a good solid foundation in understanding electronics, universities have basically been teaching it the same way for 50 years. No one knew what to think of it.

What kind of motor control were they teaching? PID loops? Servo control? This seems directly in line with a motor control class. PID was glazed over in the last weak of classes. Focus was intro. Favorite was VFD. My son actually compressed the three uses of the circuits into one quad nor chip in Minecraft in less time than it took me to read the print on the dipchips!

The focus of my undergrad EE degree was electronics, so at one point I knew a good deal about how transistors worked. The focus of my graduate EE degree was physical electronics, so at one point I knew a good deal about why transistors worked. You just buy a chip from Maxim or Allegro that fires the work.

If you had to understand everything about everything then nothing we have nowadays would exist. The key is the ability to learn and understand how something works should you need it, not memorize all the covers from the entire field which you will never need or use in industry. Starting with those basics often pushes folks out of engineering. Start with some magic. The magic may just be the motivation needed to trudge through learning the basics. So what should we start with?

That is, they had a focused and disciplined approach to solving problems for both short-term and long-term projects, or they a large supply of passion and determination. The first mod [hack? A small DC bias, bringing the diode closer to conduction. Interesting what was the intent and result? The diode is there to rectify radio signals. I made an am radio. Later when I was a bit older with income to spend on kits, I got a talkingelectronics pic lab 1. Taught myself asm and how to work with mcu in risc and after a single project entirely in asm went on to teach myself C. That AM radio was epic.

You see I loved golden age radio as a kid and it enabled me to hear the local weekly broadcasts. I can still remember being amazed that the bits I cobbled together formed an almost magical device capable of extracting my precious old time radio shows from thin air. I think todays kids are so spoiled with iphones ipads pcs, touch screens heck even smart tvs that expecting them to get excited with anything short of an arduino or raspi is an unreasonable expectation.

Instead perhaps jumping on the bandwagon of the duinopi train and producing kits for TOOLS that will elevate their abilities. For instance a logic probe like the elenco one I still use is a perfect candidate for a little math tutelage using transistors and only them. Then we need some sorta multi channel logic scope over time display so we could do the same with a logic like tool again if our intention is to teach we can make sure it is affordable. Arduino was intended to get people interested, AND to allow them to quickly make things.

Artsy people could now make blinken lights to enhance their art installation. What is missing now is the stepping stones to making actual electronic engineering math be exciting. The obvious way to get their attention is to save them money, and teach them to make projects you could do on an arduino for pennies with out the arduino, and have the tools to work with it in the process. Some time ago I was buying some bipolar transistors, got a pack of , and then had a talk with my dad which sounded like this: — Why do you need transistors?

You have it good now. Makes you appreciate the design and technology in the old tektronix scopes. Or Pspice, which comes with Kicad, so you get the schematic drawing and simulation in one place. It would be cool to have that on my phone, though. Why just last night I was building a device with sets of Darlington pairs. Cub scout meeting. An electrician showed off a dimmer and I was off to the races. We will be back to pulling the components off the boards. And discretes will be the most valuable items. Everything goes in circles …. Fortunately, today I am designing kits for young kids to learn about wires and sensors and microcomputers and code and LCD displays.

I am concerned about the lack of basic electronics knowledge in this era of such high-level hardware and software. Or even from the RaspberryPi level from a touch screen down to a transistor turning on a small DC motor. Then 75 cents worth of transistors, diodes, resistors and those capacitor things could be used for lots of circuit examples and experiments. But somebody has to do it… I would appreciate pointers to any examples you see that might apply. Anybody want to collaborate on this??

I love that train of thought! Desire is to bust somebodies binary conversion to ascii. But that train has been dwelling in idle a very long time! Glad to hear someone vocalize the concept! Also used Stromberg Carlson headphones. I need the signal from the sensor inverted. Sounds simple enough. The sensor needs 6 to 36 volts to operate.

Many ways to skin that cat from simple resistor voltage dividers to simple transistor circuits to digital logic chip circuits. Rather than reinvent the wheel I looked to the web first to copy what someone else already figured out. Nope, not gonna happen. It looks like no one has tried this method. The same thing today would probably fit on the point of a pin.

What does a transistor actually do?

It came shipped in one of those two part plastic hinged clam shell cases; black bottom and clear top that people saved to put other things in. An inductive proximity sensor typically has an NPN transistor open-collector output. Maybe PNP, in some cases. So what sensor do you have exactly? You just need a pull-up resistor to the 5V rail or whatever the logic rail is.


If the logic input to the system is an optocoupler, then just sink current through the optocoupler LED through your open-collector sensor. Not relevant in your case, but not unusual in industrial automation. Most decent motion control firmware for an Arduino or whatever such as grbl should support this. Apparently none of you have ever heard of Heathkits. For decades they were the gold standard in kits for everything from their version of the RS in one which was 20projects up to a color TV and HAM gear much of which is still in use.

I grew up during the transition from vacuum tubes to solid state. Uncle gave me his war surplus 30 MHz shortwave. I was 8 and out in the sticks with limited TV and limited permission to watch. Plainly, it is not. Oddly, I started in microprocessors with a small startup and went to waveguides and sattellite and radar working my way backwards to the lowley transistor… and even one tube. During my last Silicon Valley job did I fix a Hartley oscillator… a klystron of 25 Kw used to melt a lamp element inside a quartz tube on a production line.

Everything I did came from very basic knowledge, jumping comanies about each year. In Australia we have been recently treated with a new electronics magazine. DIYode they have been trying to cater to a very wide audience and as a result some of the articles are a bit bland but they have been running a fantastic series on basic electronics as an example this months issue was parallel and series circuits.

I like the pictures of the inside of a transistor showing a little man watching an ammeter from B to E and adjusting a rheostat from C to E. Apparently not the 3rd edition because mine as it switched with the figure next to it on the picture! Though I never built the beer powered radio ….. I had one of those as as kid as well, with the blue plastic breadboard that you screwed things into. Then I moved onto the second book where actual soldering was involved. Did a little bit of electronics in high school but then various factors resulted in me picking computers and programming another thing I was hugely interested in at the time rather than electronics.

I will never forget the time I came up with vague never-went-anywhere plans for traffic lights for a particularly busy stairwell at the private school I was at. My electronics experimentation would have been late 80s-early 90s and the most sophisticated component I remember you could get from the catalogs the high-school electronics teacher had in the back was a Z80 of some sort, getting one and the bits to make it work was out of my league though. The earlier version of the board was a piece of partcle board with holes drilled in it for the screws.

What Is a Transistor?

The last version I saw had springs that pushed into the holes in a plastic base that may have been the jaycar short circuits version. That was 50 years ago or more. Ok now I feel old, Started out having to studying the cathode voltage of the vacuum tube we had to use. Before I was out of school there were these new things called transistors. They explained that they worked sort of like tubes.

Now had to design and make stuff with these. Then while I was working these integrated circuit things started showing up.. Then micro chips. I no longer repair stuff for a living, But I still fix computers as a hobbie. I had a similar experience. Also, I think you meant Anode Voltage. Cathode voltage is normal 6. But then that was a ling time ago. This is pretty true, it reminds me of this one time I helped a friend out by replacing the microcontroller on his line following robot with a single quad NOR IC.

No one else thought of it because no one else every played around with these things like I did. The wave of the future is board swap! Or just replace the whole damn thing. My suggestion… become a network engineer. When I became a Network Engineer, I still continued with my electronics and coding as a hobby instead and then went back to it as a profession anyway. It would still be great as a learning tool for ASM.

I chuckled out loud. There was this thing called a flashlight or electric torch to euro folks. It used something called a lantern battery to push a current through a wire filament which would heat and glow in a vacuum tube and consume huge amount of power to make a little bit of portable light source.. It had an electro-mechanical device called a switch made of brass that would allow the device to be turned to one of two states.

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Brass also made something called a circuit path. On and off states where useful given the limited run power source. Transistor kits and solderless many-in-one multi project kits are still here. Velleman and Elenco come to mind. Transistors are a piece of cake. Think of E-B junction as a diode. Follow those basic rules you can trouble shoot with a DVM. Enter FETs, darlingtons et all to confuse the issue. Sounds good so far. The next step is to ensure that is a good signal diode, i. At 8 I fixed lamps and toasters.. Moms were grateful but admonished to not ho near the fuse box.

Those were dangerous, after all. It did teach me go work safely… albeit with power applied. Great background! Wired directly to v, of course. Blew every fuse in the house. DID make a very bright light—for maybe ms or so. I really wish Popular Science had gone into more detail, like the fact that a ballast was needed…]. Imagine a book today—targeted at year-olds—extolling the fun of repairing toasters, lamps, and light switches.

Loved it. And remembering my sons Tandy kit. My point was that there are exceptions to the rule that the ONLY path to success is through acedemia.

What is transistor? - Definition from

I myself am a self taught engineer. I retired from a broadcast engineering position at a university that required a degree or equivolent.

TUTORIAL: The Basics of Transistors (BJT: NPN/PNP) - Switching (Theory)

Thirty plus years of experience was more than good enough. But I can say that I read of the guys in sillycom valley, going to school AFter starting the personal computer mess… and stating that it was not so very easy. School is good. Be glad I never had much of it… eh, Pinky?!? Be verrry glad. DC biasing is used to obtain DC collector current at a particular collector voltage. The value of this voltage and current are expressed in terms of the Q-Point. In a transistor amplifier configuration, the IC max is the maximum current that can flow through the transistor and VCE max is the maximum voltage applied across the device.

To work the transistor as an amplifier, a load resistor RC must be connected to the collector. Biasing set the DC operating voltage and current to the correct level so that the AC input signal can be properly amplified by the transistor. This central point is the Q-Point and if the transistor is properly biased, the Q-point will be the central operating point of the transistor. This helps the output current to increase and decrease as the input signal swings through the complete cycle.

For setting the correct Q-Point of the transistor, a collector resistor is used to set the collector current to a constant and steady value without any signal in its base. This steady DC operating point is set by the value of the supply voltage and the value of the base biasing resistor. Base bias resistors are used in all the three transistor configurations like common base, common collector and Common emitter configurations. As shown in the Fig. These resistors establish the initial operating region of the transistor with a fixed current bias.

The transistor forward biases with a positive base bias voltage through RB. The forward base-Emitter voltage drop is 0. The base bias is obtained from the collector voltage. The collector feedback ensures that the transistor is always biased in the active region.

Transistor currents

When the collector current increases, the voltage at the collector drops. This reduces the base drive which in turn reduces the collector current. This feedback configuration is ideal for transistor amplifier designs. By using two resistors RB1 and RB2 increases the stability with respect to the variations in Beta by increasing the current flow through the base bias resistors. The transistor gets biases by the voltage drop across RB2.

This kind of biasing configuration is used widely in amplifier circuits. It uses both Emitter and Collector base feedback to improve the stabilization through controlling the collector current. If you have any queries on this topic or on the electrical and electronic projects leave the comments below.

Hello Jamshaid Iqbal, Thanks for the Compliment. For more latest updates Please visit our website again. Leave this field empty. Introduction to Transistor: Earlier, the critical and important component of an electronic device was a vacuum tube; it is an electron tube used to control electric current. Share This Post: Facebook. Thank u so much sir. This is a great post I ever read. Thank you for sharing such informations.